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The Hybrid Culture in the Development of Hybrid Theology of the Catholics in Arjowilangun Village, South Malang



This dissertation is a socio-historical study of the hybrid culture of the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village which then leads to the study of their hybrid worldview and the hybrid theology which emerges from their context. The main questions are: (1) How is the hybrid culture of the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village South Malang? (2) How does their hybrid culture influence their worldview? And (3) What kind of hybrid theology may emerge from the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village South Malang? This study which will explore the culture of the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village is expected to contibute to the recognition of their identity and theology. Furthermore, this study is expected to help the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village to live the faith interculturally. Finally, this study may help the Catholics to engange in the process of inter-religious dialogue because religion and culture are inseparable. Methodologically this study is a cultural hictorical social research employing the collective memory as a discourse which actively engage the present with the past. For collecting the data this research used a qualitative approach through interview, focus group discussion, observation and participation. The analytical process for figuring the hybrid culture includes reading the transcripts, identifying the key themes, developing the framework of the collective memory and putting the puzzles of the collective cultural memory were put in the framework to get the common picture. While the analytical process for developing intercultural theology includes analyzing Arjowilangin Bersih Desa Ceremony by using intercultural hermeneutics to understand the people's worldview and constructing the hybrid liberative theology. As there are three research questions there three main finding of this study. First, the hybird culture of the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village has started a long time ago when the local culture encountered another culture. The process continues until the present time. The process might involve conflicts and negotiations. The hybrid culture of the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village can be traced through its artefacts, practices and people. Second, the hybrod culture of the Catholics living in Arjowilangun village influence their worldview. Their worldview is also a result of hybridization of many cultures and religions. One of the example is that they see a 'person' not only in human beings but also in other things. They see the Lord, Saint Mary, the Catholic Saints, Angels, danyang/s, sacred objects, the spirits as the other-than-human persons which have a special relation and influence in their lives. This, of course, becomes the foundation for them to live their belief and daily life. Third, the suitable theology for the Catholics living in Arjowilangun South Malang is a theology that considers all aspects of their context of life. From the study hybrid theology is concluded as the one suitable theology for the the Catholics living in Arjowilangun South Malang. This theology comprises how people live in their hybrid cultural, multi-religious, historical realities. A minor finding is about their unique collective memory of their past. The mass violence of 1965 surely influenced the development of the Catholic Church in Arjowilangun village. This, of course, influences how they live their daily life and how they relate to each other as members of the Arjowilangun society and of the members of the Catholic community. This study also offers a new theory on (1) Worldview is alive; it develops together with the development of the society which lives it. Cultural encounters that are experienced by the society build and rebuild the society's worldview. Moreover, the social, political, economic, environmental, historical and religious factors of the society also colors and recolors the worldview. Worldview cannot be generalized. Two groups which belong to the same ethnic group may have different kind of worldview because of various factors. It can be said that worldview is something unique. Every society creates and recreates its worldview. (2) Hybrid theology which covers a mutually critical dialogue between the Catholic tradition with its elements and the experience of the people with its own elements helps people to understand and to live their life and faith.

Key Words: Collective memory, hybrid culture, hybrid theology, Catholics, and Arjowilangun village